What Is a Mental Institution Definition

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Management of addiction and mental health services. Civic Engagement and the Mental Health Continuum: Historical Trends and Principles of Law and Practice. There are other mental health facilities that offer less intensive or less acute psychiatric services and support. These include: Modern psychiatric hospitals evolved from the old lunatic asylum and eventually replaced it. Their development also led to the rise of organized institutional psychiatry. Sometimes people are admitted against their will to psychiatric hospitals. Involuntary admission may exist if: Franco Basaglia, a leading psychiatrist who inspired and planned psychiatric reform in Italy, also defined the psychiatric hospital as an oppressive, closed and total institution, in which punitive rules similar to those of a prison are applied to gradually eliminate its own content. Patients, doctors and nurses are all subjected (at different levels) to the same institutionalization process. [38] American psychiatrist Loren Mosher noted that the psychiatric institution itself gave her master classes in the art of “total institution”: labeling, unnecessary dependence, induction and maintenance of impotence, humiliation ceremony, authoritarianism, and the primacy of institutional needs over the patients she was supposed to serve.

[39] Sometimes admission to a psychiatric hospital occurs when there are significant changes in a person`s medications or treatments that could be destabilizing and dangerous without close supervision during that time. Killaspy H, Marston L, Green N, Harrison I, Lean M, Holloway F, Craig T, Leavey G, Arbuthnott M, Koeser L, McCrone P, Omar RZ, King M. Clinical outcomes and costs for people with complex psychosis; a prospective naturalistic cohort study of users of psychiatric rehabilitation services in England. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16:95. doi:10.1186/s12888-016-0797-6 Hungarian-born psychiatrist Thomas Szasz argued that psychiatric hospitals, unlike other types of hospitals, are like prisons, and that psychiatrists who force people (for involuntary treatment or obligation) act like judges and prison guards, not doctors. [31] The historian Michel Foucault is widely known for his comprehensive critique of the use and abuse of the psychiatric hospital system in Madness and Civilization. He argued that Tuke and Pinel`s asylum was a symbolic replica of the condition of a child in a middle-class family. It was a microcosm that symbolized the massive structures of bourgeois society and its values: family-child relations (paternal authority), guilt-punishment (immediate justice), senseless disorder (social and moral order). [32] [33] In some countries, the psychiatric institution can be used as a form of punishment for the detention of political prisoners. A notable historical example is the use of punitive psychiatry in the Soviet Union[23] and China.

[24] In addition to the high cost of hospital treatment, admission criteria may exclude some individuals requiring mental health care. As one review noted, this often results in people trapped in an emergency room and incarceration cycle. “Psychiatric institution”. Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mental%20institution. Retrieved 5 November 2022. Dalton-Locke C, Marston L, McPherson P, Killaspy H. The Effectiveness of Mental Health Rehabilitation Services: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis. Frontal psychiatry. 2021;11:607933. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.607933 Erving Goffman coined the term “total institution” for psychiatric hospitals and similar places that took over and limited a person`s entire life. [34]:150 [35]:9 Goffman placed mental hospitals in the same category as concentration camps, prisons, military organizations, orphanages, and monasteries. [36] In his book Asylums, Goffman describes how the process of institutionalization socializes people into the role of a good patient, a “boring, harmless, and discreet”; In turn, it reinforces notions of chronicity in serious mental illness.

[37] The Rosenhan experiment of 1973 showed the difficulty of distinguishing healthy patients from patients with mental illness. However, there is evidence that hospital facilities can successfully help people with serious mental illnesses and effectively reduce the long-term cost of caring for people with such conditions. Admission criteria to psychiatric hospitals may vary from place to place. Admission may be voluntary or involuntary in some cases, depending on the person`s symptoms and psychiatric assessment by a psychiatrist. A hospital stay is a considerable expense. While insurance or government programs can pay for psychiatric hospitalization, the cost can be a barrier to treatment for many people. The anti-psychiatry movement that emerged in the 1960s opposed many practices, conditions or existence of psychiatric hospitals; because of the extreme conditions in them. The psychiatric consumer/survivor movement has often spoken out, intentionally or unintentionally, against conditions in psychiatric hospitals or their use. The Movement for the Liberation of the Mentally Ill strongly opposes involuntary treatment, but generally does not reject consensual psychiatric treatment, provided that both parties can revoke their consent at any time. [ref. needed] There are different types of modern psychiatric hospitals, but all of them cater for people with mental illnesses of varying severity.